Medieval Lunar Eclipse Observations Show How Volcanoes Affect Earth’s Climate

Medieval tomes that recorded when the moon’s color changed from blood red to black during lunar eclipses may help reveal vital clues about volcanic eruptions that may have triggered Europe’s Little Ice Age, a new study has found.

Volcanic eruptions can have major impacts on Earth by spewing ash, gases and dust that can block sunlight, triggering “volcanic winters”. For example, in 1815, Mount Tambora in Indonesia erupted in the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, leading to the following year, 1816, being known as the year without a summer. The resulting weather anomalies led to June snowstorms in New England and crop failures around the world, killing more than 100,000 people from the resulting famines over the following decade, the city said. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. noted (opens in a new tab).

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